** نستخدم must لكي نقول أننا متأكدون أن شيئا ما حقيقي .

You have been travelling all day. You must be tired
' Jim is a hard worker .' ' Jim ? a hard worker? You must be joking . He's very lazy
Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing every day

** نستخدم can't لكي نقول أننا متأكدون أن شيئا ما ليس ممكنا .

You've just had lunch. You can't be hungry
Brian said he would definitely be here before 9.30. It's 10 o'clock now and he's never late. He can't be coming
They haven't lived here for very long. They can't know many people

** عند الحديث عن الماضي نستخدم must have و can't have + تصريف ثالث

The phone rang but I didn't hear it . I must have been asleep
I've lost one of my gloves . I must have dropped it somewhere.
Tom walked straight into a wall .He can't have been looking where he was going
Jane walked past me without speaking. She can't have seen me

** يمكن استخدام couldn't have بدلا من can't have

She couldn't have seen me
Tom couldn't have been looking where he was going

** نستخدم could have + تصريف ثالث للأشياء التي كانت ممكنة ولكن لم تحدث


Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York ?
You could have stayed with Barbara.
Jack fell off a ladder yesterday but he's all right. He's lucky – he could have hurt himself badly
The situation was bad but it could have been worse
I was so tired . I could have slept for a week

*** أمثلة أخري علي ما سبق :

That restaurant must be very good . It's always full of people
That restaurant can't be very good . It's always empty
Ted isn't at work today. He must be ill
Ted wasn't at work last week. He must have been ill
The jacket you bought is very good quality. It must have been very expensive
Bill passed the exam without studying for it. The exam can't have been very difficult
Why did you stay at home yesterday? You could have gone to the cinema
He couldn't have driven his aunt to the airport because his car had been stolen
He couldn't have repaired his mother washing machine because he doesn't know anything about machines



hsjo]hl hghtuhg must < can't L have could couldn't